Vol. 34/1 (2005)

ARTICLES
• S. PATRI, Notes sur la grammaticalisation, la syntaxe et la dialectologie de v. perse r-a-d i-i-y, v. slave radi, p. 7-17.

Summary
It is argued that the prototype for the OPers. postposition r-a-d i-i-y ‘because’ reflects a grammaticalization process going back to an inflected action noun * rādi – ‘saying’ connected with the neuter OAv. rādah – . According to this interpretation, OCS radi cannot be inherited in Slavic and must be seen as a borrowing from Iranian during one of the phases of contact between the two dialects.
Keywords : grammaticalization ; adposition ; syntax ; borrowing ; dialectology ; language classification.

• D. BUYANER, On the etymology of Middle Persian bashkuch (winged monster), p. 19-30.

Summary
The paper focuses on a series of the Middle Persian (both Pahlavi and Manichaean), Armenian, Georgian, Ossetic and Aramaic designations for “griffin” or “giant eagle”, the prototype of which can be reconstructed as *pasku(n)ch. A survey of the scholarly opinions concerning its provenance and etymology is made and a new explanation is suggested deriving the Middle Iranian *pasku(n)ch from either OI * sku(n)- “to be wise, prophetic, supernatural, having magic power” or from OI *skap- “to be wonderful, extraordinary, astonishing” with the preverb *pa- (< *pati-, *apa- or *upa-) and feminine suffix -chî-. Keywords : philology ; Middle-Persian ; Iranian languages ; bashkuch ; winged monster. • A. CANTERA et M. DE VAAN, The colophon of the Avestan manuscripts PT4 and MF4, p. 31-42. Summary This paper provides a transcription, transliteration and translation of the central part of the Pahlavî colophon to the Avestan manuscripts Pt4 and Mf4, in which the history of the manuscripts is recounted. This leads us to interpret the preface differently from our predecessors : the reunion of the Avestan and the Pahlavî texts in one manuscript must be dated before 1020 AD rather than after it, as was hitherto assumed. Keywords : Avestan ; Pahlavî (language) ; manuscripts ; colophon. • W. FLOOR, Dutch trade in Afsharid Persia (1730-1753), p. 43-93. Summary The article discusses Dutch trade with Persia during 1730-1753, and compares its state to the pre-1720 period. Due to the belligerent policy pursued by Nader Shah Afshar, Persia was unable to create the right socio-economic conditions for its economy to recuperate sufficiently from previous wars, demographic loss, and disruption of the productive system. Trade suffered because of the reduced purchasing power of the decreasing and overtaxed population, multiple financial demands made on traders (payment of “protection money” etc.), and depreciation of the coinage. Consequently, trade results were the worst since the VOC started to trade with Persia, leading to hesitations among the VOC directors as if the trade with Persia should continue or not. An upsurge in sales was registered after Nader Shah’s death (1747) prompting hopes that the trade would become profitable again, but this was only a temporary phenomenon that soon was deflated due to renewed fighting among Nader Shah’s successors. Keywords : economic history ; international trade ; VOC ; Bandar ‘Abbas ; Afsharid Persia ; Dutch merchants. • D. TSADIK, Religious disputations of Imâmî Shî‘îs against Judaism in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, p. 95-134. Summary This study touches upon an oft-neglected aspect of the relationship between Imāmī Shī‘īs and Jews : it examines major arguments raised by late 18th and 19th century Imāmī Shī‘īs against Judaism. These contentions, both in a literary form and in live disputations, were intended to prove the supremacy of Islam. Such polemical activity was indicative of, and also added to, the heavy socio-cultural pressure on the Jewish community in Iran . At the same time it indicated a certain level of communication and discourse between the Shī‘ī majority and the Jewish minority. Keywords : Religions in Iran ; Muslim-Jewish polemics ; religious disputations ; radd al-yahûd ; Bible criticism ; Iranian Jews. NOTES
• P. O. SKJÆRVØ , Apropos a Zoroastrian maxim on a Sasanian seal, p. 137-138.
• É. de la VAISSIÈRE, Châkars d’Asie centrale : à propos d’ouvrages récents, p. 139-149.

Comptes rendus, p. 153-160
• Ardalan, Sheerin, Les Kurdes Ardalan entre la Perse et l’Empire ottoman, Geuthner/Société d’Histoire de l’Orient, Paris 2004 [ isbn 2-7053-3747-4], par Francis Richard.
• Charmes et sortilèges. magie et magiciens , contributions réunies par Rika Gyselen, Res Orientales XIV, Bures-sur-Yvette 2002, par Philippe Gignoux.
• Nielsen, I., (éd.), The Royal Palace Institution in the First Millennium BC. Regional Development and Cultural Interchange between East and West, Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens, 4, Athènes 2001 [ISBN 87 7934 004 0], par Rika Gyselen.
• Sadeghi, ‘Ali-Ashraf, Negâh-i ba guyeshnâmahâ-yi irâni : majmu’a-’i az naqdhâ va barrasihâ, Tehran : Iran University Press / Persian Academy of Letters, 1379/2000, [ISBN : 964-01-1009-4], par Habib Borjian

Vol. 34/2 (2005)

ARTICLES
• M. GAILLARD, Héroïnes d’exception : les femmes ‘ayyâr dans la prose romanesque de l’Iran médiéval, p. 163-198.

Summary
‘Ayyâr women are in all respects exceptional characters : although less numerous than their male counterparts, some of them play remarkably important roles and also practise ‘ayyâri with the utmost excellency. The article first surveys the narrative role of great heroines appearing in two famous prose narratives (Samak-e ‘Ayyâr, Farâmarz b. Xodâ dâd al-Arrajâni, ca. 6th/12th c. ; Abu Moslem Nâme, Abu fiâher fiarflusi, 5th/11th-6th/12th c.). Then it examines the few passages in which these women talk about their situation, and analyses how men consider them in both their and the enemy camps. Whether they want to avoid marriage or marry a professional ‘ayyâr, they show great independence, but apart from their ‘ayyâr activity they do not disturb the social order. Is it by chance that these strong-charactered women, longing for a non-conformist way of life, have turned to the ‘ayyâr milieu where they seem to be well received ?
Keywords : Persian mediaeval literature ; prose narratives ; ‘ayyâr women ; Samak-e ‘Ayyâr (Farâmarz b. Xodâdâd al-Arrajâni) ; Abu Moslem Nâme (Abu fiâher fiarflusi).

• I. YAKUBOVICH , The Syntactic Evolution of Aramaic ZY in Sogdian, p. 199-230.

Summary
The syntactic functions of the Sogdian heterogram ZY are radically different from those of its Aramaic prototype zy > dy, but the historical relationship between these two elements has not been systematically investigated so far. The examination of the three main functions of ZY, as well as their evolution within Sogdian, has enabled me to identify a group of Official Aramaic constructions with the particle zy that provide a logical starting point for its syntactic reinterpretation that occurred in Central Asia. In the Appendix, I have attempted to improve the translation of several difficult Aramaic passages the previous interpretations of which suffered from the unwarranted extrapolation of Sogdian data into Aramaic.
Keywords : philology ; Sogdian ; syntax ; heterogram ZY ; Aramaic ; A s oka.

• K. RÜHRDANZ, Populäre Naturkunde illustriert : Text und Bild in persischen ‘Ajâ’ib-Handschriften spätjala‘iridischer und frühtimuridischer Zeit , p. 231-256.

Summary
Several illustrated manuscripts of four Persian texts on ‘ajâ’ib have been preserved from 1388 – 1423-24, a short but still a formative period of Persian miniature painting. The article describes the main differences between the four texts and considers what may have made them attractive to the respective patrons. It tries to establish how the character of the illustration relates to the text and to the style of painting dominant at the time and place of production of the particular manuscript. The development of a “modernised” style of scientific illustration has contributed to the success of a particular text : Qazwînî’s ‘Ajâ’ib al-makhlûqât. This led to the abandonment of other iconographical trends and to the final prevalence of Qazwînî’s work in the field of illustrated natural history.
Keywords : ‘Ajâ’ib literature ; manuscript illustration ; popular natural history ; Tuhfat al-gharâ’ib ; Nuzhatnâma-yi ‘alâ’î ; ‘Ajâ’ib al-makhlûqât.

• E. KAGEYAMA, Quelques remarques sur des monuments funéraires de Sogdiens en Chine , p. 257-278.

Summary
The article presents a funerary couch exhibited in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London, the motifs of which bear a resemblance with several funerary monuments of Sogdians discovered in China. Reciprocal iconographical borrowings between the Chinese and Sogdian funerary arts are also discussed.
Keywords : Sogdians ; China ; funerary art ; Northern Dynasties ; Sui ; Tang.

NOTES
• K. T. WITCZAK, Notes on the Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Languages, vol. I, p. 281-288.

OBITUAIRE
• János HARMATTA [1917-2005], par Ph. Gignoux, p. 291-296.

Comptes rendus, p. 299-316.
• Abû Moslem Nâmeh, be revâyat-e Abû Tâher-e Tarûsî, éd. H. Esmaïli, IFRI, Téhéran 2001 [ isbn 964-5643-97-X], par Mohamamd-Ali Amir Moezzi.
• Gariboldi, Andrea, La monetazione Sasanide nelle civiche raccolte numismatiche di Milano , Mailand 2003, par Nikolaus Schindel.
• Hillenbrand, Robert, (ed.), Shahnama, the Visual Language of the Persian Book of Kings, Edinburgh 2004 [ISBN 0-7546-3367-5], par Francis Richard.
• Lecoq, Pierre, Recherches sur les dialectes kermaniens (Iran Central) : grammaire, textes, traductions et glossaires , Louvain-la-Neuve 2002 [ ISBN 90-429-1173-5], par Habib Borjian.
• Tapper, Richard, MacLachlan, Keith, (eds.), Technology, tradition and survival. Aspects of material culture in the Middle East and Central Asia, London-Portland 2003 [ISBN 0-7146-4927-9], par Jean-Pierre Digard.

Keywords: