Vol. 39/1 (2010)

ARTICLES
• X. de PLANHOL, “Le kārēz et la luzerne : une première Révolution Agricole en Iran”, p. 11-26.

Summary
By the turn of the first millenium B.C., an Agricultural Revolution took place in the Iranian world that was characterised by a combined development of permanent irrigation (obtained through the technique of kārēz, i.e. draining galleries exploiting the underground water table) and year-round cultivation of lucerne that, from one plot of land, produced several harvests a year for up to seven years in a row, without sowing. This led to considerable historical consequences. One was a demographic expansion, resulting from a massive growth of cereal production that was made possible thanks to the permanent exploitation of new agricultural areas in the fertile soils of the Iranian piedmonts, where permanent irrigation induced a very high annual yield. Another consequence was the emergence of a well fed and particularly strong breed of horse, highly superior to those from the Syro-Egyptian and Anatolian Near-East, which appears to have been the deci¬sive factor in the Achaemenids’ military success. The formation of the Persian Empire, which was orignally made possible thanks to the association of these components, was in the longer run the result of the human progress induced by the Agricultural Revolution. Since the advent of Zoroastrianism, an indelible mark was left on the Iranian mentality, with its predilection for gardens and permanently irrigated centres ; the realm of Good, vigourously opposed to the realm of Evil as represented by the steppe and the outside desertic areas.
Keywords : Agricultural Revolution ; Iranian plateau ; irrigation ; kārēz ; lucerne ; horse ; Persian Empire.

• S. AZARNOUCHE et Fr. GRENET, “Thaumaturgie sogdienne : nouvelle édition et commentaire du texte P.3”, p. 27-77.

Summary
The magical Sogdian text known under the signature P.3 is a remarkable product of the convergence of three different cultures : Iranian, Indian and Turkic. It describes a complex ritual designed to summon and stop rain and can be divided into four distinct sections : a lapidary listing nine magic stones, the material preparations of the ritual, a Zoroastrian hymn to the Wind, and finally the rites to guide and control the rain.
This study takes into account the research previously done on individual parts of the text, as well as the advances made in our understanding of the Sogdian language, and the realia involved in this Central Asian ritual. This article contains the first complete edition of the text since Benveniste’s publication in 1940.
Keywords : Sogdian text ; rain magic ; lapidary ; magic stones ; jada ; Central Asian ritual.

• A. LENEPVEU-HOTZ, “Des verbes modaux persans et de l’évolution de leur construction entre les Xe et XVIe siècles”, p. 79-107.

Summary
Persian modal verbs bāyistan, “must”, šāyad, “may”, tavānistan, “can”, “to be able”, and xvāstan, “to want”, get different constructions : either the infinitive or the finite verb. As the quantitative analysis shows, the choice between both constructions is principally linked to an evolution. So the causes must be looked for. Except for xvāstan and its two uses – volition and auxiliary for the future –, the meaning of modalities takes only a little part. In the same way, syntax is not a very important feature. In fact the change of the governed construction is due to the morphological properties of the finite verb, which are much more extensive than those of the infinitive : the finite verb can get different affixes, which are excluded with the verbal infinitive.
Keywords : linguistics ; modal verbs ; Classical Persian ; diachrony ; modalities ; governed constructions.

NOTES
• Ph. GIGNOUX, “Un nouvel ouvrage de référence de la papyrologie pehlevie. Note de lecture” [D. Weber, Berliner Pahlavi-Dokumente…, Wiesbaden 2008], p. 111-120.
• M. GAILLARD, “L’Arbre anthropogène du Waqwaq : nouvelles explorations d’un mythe multiple. Note de lecture” [J.-L. Bacqué-Grammot, M. Bernardini, L. Berardi, éds., L’Arbre anthropogène du Waqwaq…, Naples 2007], p. 121-134.

Comptes rendus, p. 137-158
• ABDULLAEVA, Firuza ; Charles MELVILLE, The Persian Book of Kings. Ibrahim Sultan’s Shahnama, Oxford, Bodleian Library, 2008, 142p. [ISBN : 1-85124-346-1], par Francis Richard.
• BRIANT, Pierre ; Francis JOANNES, éds., La transition entre l’empire achéménide et les royaumes hellénistiques. Actes du colloque organisé au Collège de France par la “Chaire d’histoire et civilisation du monde achéménide et de l’empire d’Alexandre” et le “Réseau international d’études et de recherches achéménides” (GDR 2538 CNRS), 22-23 novembre 2004. Persika, 9, Paris : De Boccard, 2006, 476p. [ISBN : 978-2-7018-0213-8], par Vito Messina.
• EHTESHAMI, Anoushirvan ; Mahjoob ZWEIRI, Iran and the Rise of its Neoconservatives. The Politics of Tehran’s Silent Revolution, Londres-New York, I.B. Tauris, 2007, 215p., [ISBN : 978-1-84511-388-9], par Gilles Riaux.
• FRIEDENBERG, D. M., Sasanian Jewry and its Culture : A Lexicon of Jewish and Related Seals, University of Illinois Urbana and Chicago, 2009, 74p. [ISBN : 978-0-252-03367-4], par Rika Gyselen.
• PORTER, Yves, Les Iraniens. Histoire d’un people, Civilisations, Armand Colin, Paris, 2006, 342p. [ISBN : 2-200-26825-4], par Charles Melville.
• RUSPOLI, Stéphane, Écrits des Maîtres soufis, 2. Trois traités de Baghdadî et Semnânî, traduction et présentation de Stéphane Ruspoli, Corbey : Arfuyen, 2008, 190p. (Les Carnets spirituels), par Ève Feuillebois.
• SEYED-GOHRAB, A. A. ; F.C.W. DOUFIKAR-AERTS ; S. MCGLINN, éds., Gog and Magog, The Clans of Chaos in World Literature, Rozenberg Publishers & Purdue University Press, Amsterdam and West Lafayette, Indiana USA, 2007, 162p. [ISBN : 978-90-5170-859-2], par Christine van Ruymbeke.
• TUCKER, Ernest S., Nadir Shah’s Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran, Gainsville : University Press of Florida, 2006, 151p., Index [ISBN 0-8130-2964-3], par Jean Calmard.

Vol. 39/2 (2010)

ARTICLES
• Ph. GIGNOUX, “Les noms de plantes médicinales et autres dans les sources pehlevies. En hommage au professeur Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin pour son centième anniversaire”, p. 163-170.

Summary
Iranians of pre-Islamic era probably used constantly medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases. Pahlavi litterature, namely the Bundahišn and the Anthology of Zādspram, yield a good lot of plants’ names. The Author here establishes a list of 73 terms accompanied by their textual and, in some cases, by their etymological references.
Keywords : medicinal plants ; Pahlavi literature ; pre-Islamic period.

• C. CERETI, “Avestan quotations in Pahlavi books. On two passages found in Dēnkard Book VII : Dk VII.1.7 and Dk VII.3.6”, p. 171-183.

Summary
The paper analyzes two passages belonging to the seventh book of the Dēnkard [Dk] that had earlier been studied and translated by Marijan Molé, presenting a new translation which improves our understanding of the text. Molé’s – and de Menasce’s – approach to the jargon of theological Pahlavi texts, often depending on the Middle Persian Zand of the Avesta, is briefly discussed here. This paper also shows that Dk VII,1,7 is most probably a rendering of an original Zand passage, while Dk VII,3,6 should rather be understood as a “remembrance” of the Avestan Zand.
Keywords : Zoroastrianism ; Middle Persian ; Pahlavi literature ; Avesta ; Zand ; Dēnkard.

• R. GYSELEN, “Les Wahramides (273-293 A.D.) : quelques aspects de leur langage monétaire”, p. 185-223.

Summary
The author, having offered several remarks on her methodology, suggests the ways that Wahrām I and Wahrām II expressed their ideological preoccupations within the very narrow framework that the monetary language of the 3rd century provided. Although R. Göbl has demonstrated the impact of Roman coinage on the monetary language of coin obverses under Wahrām II, other features have never been examined in the context of Roman parallels. Furthermore, monetary language has not yet been used to reveal the political problems that arose in the interior regions of the empire.
Keywords : Sasanian period ; 3rd century ; coinage ; Wahrām I ; Wahrām II.

• H. ANSARI et Sabine SCHMIDTKE, “Muʿtazilism after ‘Abd al-Jabbār : Abū Rashīd al-Nīsābūrī’s Kitāb Masāʾil al-khilāf fī l-uṣūl (Studies on the transmission of knowledge from Iran to Yemen in the 6th/12th and 7th/13th c., I)”, p. 225-276.

Summary
Abū Rashīd al-Nīṣābūrī, the successor of ‘Abd al-Jabbār al-Hamadhānī (d. 415/ 1025) as head of the Baṣran school of the Mu‘tazila, is mostly known for his Kitāb al-Masā’il fī l-khilāf bayn al-Baṣriyyīn wa-l-Baghdādiyyīn which is preserved in a unique manuscript of Yemeni provenance owned today by the State Library of Berlin (Glaser 12). By contrast, another comprehensive work of Nīsābūrī has completely escaped the attention of modern scholarship, viz. MS Maktabat al-awqāf of the Great Mosque in Ṣan‘ā’, No. 696, which can be identified as his Masā’il al-khilāf baynanā wa-bayn al-mushabbiha wa-l-mujbira wa-l-khawārij wa-l-murji’a. The article presents this work and its author in detail and outlines important steps in the transmission of Zaydī religious literature from the Caspian region to Yemen during the second half of the 6th/12th and the first half of the 7th/13th centuries.
Keywords : Islamic theology ; kalām ; Muʿtazila ; Zaydiyya ; Abū Rashīd al-Nīsābūrī ; Eduard Glaser ; Ibn al-Walīd al-Qurashī al-‘Anf ; al-Manṣūr bi-llāh ‘Abd Allāh b. Ḥamza.

OBITUAIRES
• Ezat O. NEGAHBAN [1926-2009], par R. Boucharlat, p. 279-280.
• Massoud Azarnoush [1945-2008], par R. Boucharlat, p. 281-282.

Comptes rendus, p. 285-313
• CALLIERI, Pierfrancesco, L’archéologie du Fārs à l’époque hellénistique, Persika 11, Paris, 2007 [ISBN : 978-2-7018-0228-2], par Barbara Kaim.
• DARYAEE, Touraj, Sasanian Iran (224-651 CE) : Portrait of a Late Antique Empire, Mazda Publishers, 2008 [ISBN : 978-1-568-59169-8] ; et DARYAEE, Touraj, Sasanian Persia : the Rise and Fall of an Empire, London – New York, 2009 [ISBN : 978-1-85043-898-4], par Rika Gyselen.
• FARMANFARMAIAN, Roxane, (éd.), War and Peace in Qajar Persia. Implications past and present, Londres – New York, 2008 [ISBN : 978-0-415-42119-5 (hbk)], par Jean Calmard.
• FRAGNER, Bert G. ; Ralph KAUZ ; Roderich PTAK ; Angela SCHOTTENHAMMER, éds., Pferde in Asien : Geschichte, Handel und Kultur, Wien, 2009 [ISBN : 978-3-7001-6103-5], par Jean-Pierre Digard.
• HELLOT-BELLIER, Florence, France-Iran. Quatre cents ans de dialogue, Studia Iranica, Cah. 34, Paris 2007 [ISBN : 978-2-910640-20-0], par Agnès Devictor.
• SCHINASI, May, Kaboul 1773-1948 : Naissance et croissance d’une capitale royale, Series Maior XIII, Université de Naples, 2008 [ISSN : 1824-6117], par Marcus Schadl.
• SUBTELNY, Maria Eva, Timurids in Transition. Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran, Leiden-Boston, 2007 [ISBN : 978-90-04-16031-6], par Michele Bernardini.

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