Studia Iranica, vol. 44 (2015)
Vol. 44/1 (2015)
• M. GAILLARD, “Les origines d’Abu Moslem: de l’incertitude historique à la vraisemblance légendaire”, p. 7
The evolution of the character of Abu Muslim into a legendary, then a mythical figure, can be observed through two Persian prose romances: the Abū Muslim Nāma (Abū Ṭāhir-i Ṭarṭūsī, 5e-6e/11e-12e c.) and the Junayd Nāma (Abū Ḥafż-i Kūfī, 9e/15e c.). Developing on Abū Muslim’s youth, the Abū Muslim Nāma endows the character with most of the characteristics of the epic hero. However, the narrative does not free itself from the historical imperatives of the hero’s origins. This is precisely where the Junayd Nāma steps in. As pure fiction, it freely reworks Abū Muslim’s origins, and thus contributes to the process of mythification of the character. Going back in his lineage, the Junayd Nāma creates for the protagonist of the Abū Muslim Nāma a noble and supernatural ancestry, and bestows on him the inheritance of an exemplary bravery.
Keywords: Abū Muslim-i Ḫurāsānī ; Abu Moslem Nāma (Abū Ṭāhir-i Ṭarṭusī) ; Junayd Nāma (Abū Ḥafż-i Kūfī) ; legendary figure ; mythification ; Shi’ism.
• S. AUBE, “Le mausolée Zeyn al-‘bedin à Sāri: Contribution à l’étude des tours-tombeaux du Māzanderān au XVe siècle”, p. 33
Zeyn al-‘Ābedin Mausoleum at Sāri is one of the famous Māzanderān tomb-towers. This monument presents several local peculiarities: an architecture designed by a workshop from Āmol, a wood ṣanduq with a specific local style, decorative compositions typical of fifteenth century tomb-towers from Māzanderān; yet, its rare “black line” (or cuerda seca) tiles are very unusual. By highlighting these various aspects and proposing to date them, this article aims to contribute to the history of Iranian architecture and decoration in the fifteenth century.
Keywords: Tomb towers; Māzanderān; ceramic tile; woodcarving; Mar‘ashi; 15th century.
• K. GHANI, “Vestige of a dying tradition: Persian tract of Tuḥfat ul-Muwaḥḥidīn in nineteenth-century Bengal”, p. 55
The fall of the Mughal Empire did not necessarily replace Persian with English as the new language of British colonial culture. Rather in places like Bengal, along with many areas of North India, Persian remained popular, and in practice. As a result, both Hindus and Muslims familiarized themselves with the language, which had, over centuries, become an inseparable part of Bengal’s intellectual culture. In the early colonial period Persian continued as the language of administration. Interestingly, its application was limited not to administration alone, but also to scholarly activities carried out by Muslims and Hindus alike. Tuhfat ul-Muwaḥḥidīn (Gift to Monotheists)—the text under discussion—was written by Rammohun Roy, in Persian, as a tract on religious reform. In the current article an analysis of the Tuhfat will help understand Rammohun’s belief in the unity of Godhead inspired by his conviction in the inherent fallibility of religions in general, and Hinduism in particular. The treatise brings to light a sharply critical attitude of Rammohun concerning the gradual degeneration that had affected Hinduism over time.
Keywords: Persian; Mughal Bengal; Rammohun Roy; Tuhfat ul-Muwaḥḥidīn; Hinduism; Monotheism.
• B. LINCOLN, “Toward a more materialistic ethics: Vermin and poison in Zoroastrian thought”, p. 83
Absent from the Older Avesta, vermin and poison first appear in a few verses of the Younger Avesta, whose authors misinterpreted Yasna 34.5c (where they mistook adjectival xrafstra- for a substantive) and Yasna 49.11c (whose “evil foods” [akāiš xvarəθāiš] they took to be poison [viša-]). The Pahlavi texts take the argument further, developing a narrative in which these creatures and substances become prime weapons of Ahriman in his assault on Ohrmazd’s Good Creation. Speculation along these lines introduced novel understandings of evil as a lethal substance, rather than a destructive disposition or spirit, moving questions of morality from metaphysics to physics.
Keywords: Zoroastrianism; Avesta; Hermeneutics; Ethical reinterpretation; Materialism.
• M. SHENKAR, “Images of Daēnā and Mithra on two seals from the Indo-Iranian borderlands”, p. 99
The article discusses two seals from the recently published collection of Aman Ur Rahman that depict previously unrecognized images of Iranian deities. It is suggested that the first seal, of eastern Sasanian manufacture, depicts a unique image of the Daēnā accompanied by two dogs. The second seal shows a well-known motif of a chariot of Mithra. The inscription connects it with the Pārata kings and helps to date the seal to the third-fourth centuries CE.
Keywords: Zoroastrianism; iconography; seals; deities; Bactria; Daēnā; Mithra.
• R. GYSELEN, “Sceau du Dīwān de l’armée sassanide à l’époque d’Ohrmezd IV (579-590)”, p. 121
The reading muhr ī dīwān-ī-kustagān hujadag-ohrmezd supports the identification of a seal as the one of the central office of the Sasanian army.
Keywords: Sasanian period; Ohrmezd IV (579-590); army; sigillography; dīwān-ī-kustagān.
• Ch. M. Kieffer [1923-2015], par Gérard Fussman, p. 133
Comptes rendus, p. 143
Vol. 44/2 (2015)
• Hommage à Chahryar Adle, 1944-2015, p. 163
• E. ANONBY, “The Keshmi (Qeshmi) dialect of Hormozgan province, Iran: A first account”, p. 165
Keshmi, the dialect of Qeshm Island in the Strait of Hormuz, belongs to the Southwestern branch of the Iranian languages. The largest island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm was described in 1908 by Lorimer who stated that Arabic was spoken there. Relying on the ethnic map of Iran in the Atlas narodov mira (1964), most later scholars have repeatedly described the language on the island as a mixture of Persian and Arabic, but Izady’s (2006) map mentions a “Qishmi” dialect. The present study, which offers a first overview of this Keshmi dialect, brings clarity to the contradictory assertions in the literature. An updated description of the island and its population of over 100,000 is provided, touching on geography, history and demographics as well as questions of language use and identity. The paper then examines the dialect’s classification, its internal dialect situation, and its linguistic structures, with attention to aspects of the phonology, morphology and lexicon. Although Keshmi speakers view themselves as ethnically distinct, and recognize that their dialect exhibits some distinctive structures, the author uses comparative data to situate the Keshmi dialect within Southwestern Iranian and, in keeping with the perceptions of the speakers themselves, most closely connected to the Bandari dialects of the mainland.
Keywords: linguistics; Southwestern Iranian languages; Keshmi (Qeshmi) dialect; Qeshm Island; Bandari Persian; Hormozgan Province; language documentation.
• J. J. FERRER-LOSILLA, “Repetitions or omissions? Different versions of Widēwdād 22”, p. 207
The present paper analyses two versions that appear in the 22nd chapter of an intercalated text of the Zoroastrian Long Liturgy, the Widēwdād: a longer version in the Iranian manuscripts and a shorter in the Indian ones. It is shown that we stand before two different real versions in the ritual praxis of this ceremony, though it is difficult to evaluate the date in which each version appeared or whether one version could arise from the other after the beginning of the written transmission. Other passages of the Widēwdād containing similar problems are analysed in a brief appendix.
Keywords: Iranian philology; Avestan manuscripts; Zoroastrian written transmission; Zoroastrian liturgies.
• V. GENÇ, “From Tabriz to Istanbul: Goods and treasures of Shāh Ismā‘īl looted after the battle of Chāldirān”, p. 227
The battle of Chāldirān (2 Rajab 920/23 August 1514) and its historical significance have been well documented in the literature. However, one of the aspects of this battle, that is the fate of the goods and treasures taken by the Ottomans, has not been studied. While this aspect was overstated in the Ottoman sources, it was not mentioned at all in Safavid sources. Based on two original Ottoman documents that have survived to date, this paper reports on the goods taken by the Ottomans from the Hasht Bihisht Palace of Shāh Ismā‘īl, the founder of the Safavid dynasty. These two documents—D.10734 and D.09608—, currently held at the Topkapı Palace Museum Archives in Istanbul (TSMA), will throw new light on the lesser known aspects of Chāldirān battle and its consequences.
Keywords: Battle of Chāldirān; Shāh Ismā‘īl; Selim I; Ottomans; Safavids; Hasht Bihisht Palace in Tabriz.
• W. FLOOR, “Hotels in Iran, 1870-1940”, p. 277
This article discusses the development of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company’s (APOC) medical service from its simple beginnings in 1907 to one with the most modern medical facilities in the Middle East by 1950. The nature and scope of the medical services offered as well as their geographical distribution are discussed. The medical service not only served the Company’s needs, but also was a public relations tool to advance its negotiating position with all its domestic and foreign partners. Nevertheless, the service rendered was not optimal, for it had a minimalist approach, despite the fact that APOC had the legal responsibility for public health and sanitation in its concession area.
Keywords: Khuzestān; Qājār; oil; Pahlavi; medicine; Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETAS IRANOLOGICA EUROPAEA. REPORT 2011-2015, par Almut Hintze, p. 317
• Chahryar Adle [1946-2015], par Yann Richard et Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam, p. 323
• Marina Gaillard [1955-2015], par Hossein Esmaili, p. 327
Table des matières du vol. XLIV, p. 333