Studia Iranica, vol. 41 (2012)
Vol. 41/1 (2012)
• A. AHMADI, “Religious Regulation of Hospitality in the Gāthās (Y 46.5 & 6)”, p. 7-24.
More than any other Gāthic text Yasna 46 is concerned with issues that reflect the circumstances of Zarathuštra’s life. This makes it extremely valuable for interpretation of the Gāthās, since here we may find clues about the image the poet had of himself. Did the poet think of himself as a ‘prophet’, as Mazdaean tradition and the Western scholarship in the main believe ? Or, as a new current of Avestan studies has it, was he a Vedic-type poet and ritual performer who should be imagined within the same ‘traditional’ mold as the poets of the so-called Family Books of the Ṛgveda ? The poet’s intention to have an impact on community norms is shown in Y 46.5 and 6 by his religious regulation of the important custom of hospitality. I examine four previous translations of these verses, arguing that their syntax was wrongly analyzed and as a result their sense and significance remained completely obscure. Based on a detailed syntactic and semantic analysis of these verses I offer a new translation. I conclude by pointing out the relevance of the findings for a few controversial issues of contemporary Avesta scholarship.
Keywords : hospitality ; Gāthās ; Zarathuštra ; religion ; sacrifice ; Avesta scholarship.
• P. TANDON, “The Location and Kings of Pāradān”, p. 25-56.
Scholars have been unsure of the location of the kingdom of Pāradān, mentioned in the ŠKZ inscription of the Sasanian emperor Shāpur I (241-272) and the Paikuli inscription of Narseh (293-303). Most estimates placed it in what is now the western part of the Pakistani state of Balochistan and eastern Iran, west of the estimated location of the kingdom of Turān. This paper provides new numismatic evidence, linked to earlier archaeological evidence, that allows us to confidently place Pāradān in the eastern part of Balochistan, most probably east of the kingdom of Turān. The coin series, issued over a period of about 175 years, shows no Sasanian influence and therefore sheds light on the relationship between the centre and the periphery in the Sasanian empire
Keywords : dynastic history ; numismatics ; Pāradān (Pārdān/Paradene) ; ŠKZ ; Paikuli ; Sasanian provinces.
• H. ANSARI & S. SCHMIDTKE, “Mu‘tazilism in Rayy and Astarābād : Abū l-Faḍl al-‘Abbās b. Sharwīn (Studies on the transmission of knowledge from Iran to Yemen in the 6th/12th and 7th/13th c., II)”, p. 57-100.
Among the Zaydī students of ‘Abd al-Jabbār al-Hamadhānī (d. 415/1024) was Abū l-Faḍl al-‘Abbās b. Sharwīn who hailed from Astarābād. While his opus magnum on theology, Yāqūtat al-īmān wa-wāsiṭat al-burhān was known in 9th/16th-century Iran, no manuscript has so far surfaced. It is preserved, however, in the form of a paraphrastic commentary on it by the Yemenī Zaydī theologian al-Ḥasan al-Raṣṣāṣ (d. 584/1188). In addition, Ibn Sharwīn composed a text containing theological definitions, a critical edition of which is presented here on the basis of the single extant manuscript from Yemen. He is also known to have written a Kitāb al-Madkhal fī uṣūl al-dīn of which a partial copy is perhaps preserved in a manuscript of Yemeni origin that now belongs to the Ambrosiana library in Milan.
Keywords : Zaydism ; Mu‘tazilism ; kalām ; al-Ḥasan al-Raṣṣāṣ ; Ibn Sharwīn ; ‘Abd al Jabbār al-Hamadhānī ; books of definitions ; Astarābād.
• A. YAMAGUCHI, “Shāh Ṭahmāsp’s Kurdish Policy”, p. 101-132.
This papre challenges the widely held myth that, as distinct from the Ottomans, the Safavids dealt severely with the Kurdish tribes and their chieftains, depriving them of their inherited districts. A close analysis of related historical sources from this period, especially a unique record on Kurdish tribal confederations, Sharaf-nāma, written by Sharaf Khān Bidlīsī provides us with a fresh image of the Kurdish policy pursued in the 16th century by the first two Safavid rulers, Ismā‘īl I, and especially Ṭahmāsp.
Keywords : Kurdistan ; Safavids ; Ottomans ; Ṭahmāsp I ; qūrchī.
• M. SHENKAR, “On the temple of Oxus in Bactria, III (Review article of B. Litvinskiy, Khram Oksa v Baktrii, 3)”, p. 135-142.
• Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin (1910-2012), p. 145-151.
Comptes rendus, p. 155-165
• KADOI, Yuka. Islamic Chinoiserie. The Art of Mongol Iran, Edinburg, Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 286 p. [ISBN : 978-0-7486-3582-5], par Éloïse Brac de La Perrière.
• KENNET, Derek ; Paul LUFT. Current Research in Sasanian Archaeology, Art and History. Proceedings of a Conference held at Durham University, November 3rd and 4th, 2001, BAR International Series 1810, 2008, 161p., par Rémy Boucharlat.
• SHAMS ESHRAGH, A., Silver Coinage of the Caliphs (A Fully Illustrated Catalogue), London : Spink & Son Ltd, 2010, 325p. [ISBN : 978-600-90916-0-7], par Rika Gyselen.
Vol. 41/2 (2012)
• A. GARIBOLDI & A. ŠARIPOV, “A Sasanian Hoard from Dushanbe”, p. 169-186.
The present paper analyses a hoard of Sasanian drachms which was found in 1950 in Dushanbe. So far, it is the unique treasure of Sasanian coins from Tajikistan. The hoard contains coins of Yazdgird I, Wahrām V and Yazdgird II. The author connects the presence of these coins in Central Asia to the payments that Yazdgird II had to make to the Kidarites around the middle of the 5th century to secure peace on the border. All the coins were countermarked by a local authority with an interesting “S” shaped tamgha.
Keywords : numismatics ; coin hoards ; Sasanid Iran ; Tajikistan ; Dushanbe.
• A. ANISI, “The Kūshk-i Raḥīmābād in Bam”, p. 187-202.
The history of garden architecture in early Islamic Iran is little known. This article introduces one of the earliest surviving garden pavilions or kūshks in the Bam area (southeastern Iran). The square building, measuring ca. 34×34 m, has four rectangular īwāns, one on each side. The edifice is datable to the 4th/10th century.
Keywords : architecture ; Islamic period ; pavilion ; kūshk ; Bam.
• Ch. van RUYMBEKE, “Murder in the Forest. Celebrating Rewritings and Misreadings of the Kalila-Dimna Tale of the Lion and the Hare”, p. 203-254.
This paper considers rewritings and translations of a key-episode within the cycle of fables known as the Kalila-Dimna in several innovative ways. First, by considering the ways in which this episode has been rewritten throughout the centuries, the essay takes a stand radically opposed to the prevalent scholarship around the fables, which consists in rating the rewritings for their faithfulness to the source text(s). The present approach “celebrates” the misreadings and rewritings for the insights they give us into the mechanisms of the tale. Second, by analysing the episode as a weighty lesson in domestic politics, showing the fatal mistakes that can build up to regicide, the essay also aims at re-introducing an awareness of the contents of the fables as a very effective and unusual mirror for princes.
Keywords : Kalila-Dimna ; fables ; Pancatantra ; rewritings ; misreadings ; regicide ; mirror for princes.
• W. FLOOR, “The Trade in and Position of Slaves in Southern Iran, 1825-1925”, p. 255-294.
The situation of slavery in Southern Iran during the Qājār period (1797-1925) is described through a discussion of the slave trade, both foreign and domestic ; how the maritime import of slaves was banned ; how this gave rise to the export of Baluchi slaves to Oman, and finally the various ways slaves were made use of, both in domestic and agricultural tasks, as well as how they were treated.
Keywords : Qājār Iran ; slavery (trade and employment) ; Baluchistan ; Oman ; Mekran.
• Gherardo Gnoli (1937-2012), [par Ph. Gignoux], p. 297-302.
Comptes rendus, p. 305-323.
• HERMANN, Denis ; Fabrizio SPEZIALE, eds., Muslim Culture in the Indo-Iranian World during the Early-Modern and Modern Periods, Berlin : IFRI – Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 2010, 596p. [ISBN : 978-2-909961-45-3, et 978-3-87997-364-4], par Jean Calmard.
• PAPAS, Alexandre, Mystiques et vagabonds en islam : portraits de trois soufis qalandar, Paris : Cerf, 2010, 338p., [ISBN : 978-2-204-09294-4], par È. Feuillebois.
• RICHARD, Francis ; Maria SZUPPE, eds., Écrit et culture en Asie centrale et dans le monde turco-iranien, Xe-XIXe siècles, (Cahiers de Studia Iranica 40), Paris : AAEI, 2009, 470p. [ISBN : 978-2-910640-26-2], par Colin P. Mitchell.
• RITTER, Nils C., Die altorientalischen Traditionen der sasanidischen Glyptik : Form–Gebrauch–Ikonographie, Wien : Lit Verlag, 2010, 384p. [ISBN : 978-3-643-50223-0], par Rika Gyselen.
Table des matières du volume 41, p. 324.