Studia Iranica, vol. 42 (2013)
Vol. 42/1 (2013)
• G. LAZARD, “Le verbe persan zadan ‘frapper’, ses constructions et ses emplois”, p. 7-21.
This article is inspired by P. Samvelian’s recent book on complex predicates in Persian. On the basis of the syntactic constructions, it presents a systematic classification of the meaning of the verb zadan “to hit”, which is part of a great number of lexical verb phrases. It is proposed to analyze it as a three-actant verb, which calls for complements designating a source, a target and a theme.
Keywords : complement ; complex predicate ; lexical verb phrase ; Persian ; source ; target ; theme ; verb.
• F. PALUNČIĆ, “On Ossetic Metathesis”, p. 23-41.
In this article, the conditions under which consonant clusters underwent metathesis in Ossetic are established. It is shown that only clusters of a fricative plus liquid and clusters of fricative plus fricative underwent metathesis. The conditions of this metathesis are similar to those proposed for Armenian, although not identical. These results prove that Ossetic, like its East Iranian relatives, underwent spirantization of initial and intervocalic voiced stops at an early date.
Keywords : Iranian languages ; historical phonology ; Ossetic metathesis ; Sarmatian names.
• D. AGOSTINI, “Popular Apocalyptics in Pahlavi Literature Context : the Jāmāsp-Nāmag Revisited”, p. 43-56.
Pahlavi literature consists a rich literary and textual apocalyptic tradition such as, for example, the Jāmāsp-Nāmag, the Zand ī Wahman Yasn, chapter thirty-three of the Iranian Bundahišn and few chapters of the Dēnkard VII. Over the last century, the Iranian apocalyptics was studied both in comparison to Iranian eschatology and in relation to the mutual influences with Judeo-Christian apocalyptics. However, if we consider the Iranian apocalyptics as a phenomenon independent of eschatology, we can notice that it presents several original narrative topics. It also seems that the style of narration and the language were conceived for different social and cultural milieus. May three different points of discussion : 1) the generic features of the texts mentioned above, 2) the historical and mythical topics, and 3) the position of the different apocalyptic mediums, lead us to claim that there was in Iran, after the Arab conquest, both an apocalyptic narrative tradition conceived for the courtly and religious milieus and one conceived for the popular milieu ?
Keywords : Apocalyptics ; Eschatology ; Zoroastrianism ; Middle Persian ; Pahlavi literature.
• N. GARSOÏAN, “The Problematic Marriages of the Armenian King Aršak II : an Iranian Hypothesis”, p. 57-70.
On the basis of the native Christian Armenian sources compared with the Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus, no logical explanation can be given for the multiple marriages of the Armenian fourth-century king Aršak II, or for the impossible chronology of the life of his son by P‘aṙanjem of Siunik‘, young Pap. The conflation of historical and epic traditions adds to the confusion. The only possibility of bringing some plausibility into these accounts lies in the hypothesis that the still highly Iranized albeit already Christian society of Arsacid Armenia continued to conform to Zoroastrian laws on multiple marriages, especially within the agnatic group, customs which were no longer understood or acceptable to the native ecclesiastical historians writing at least one century after the events.
Keywords : Pap ; P‘aṙanjem ; chronology ; marriages ; polygamy ; Zoroastrian family laws ; Christian tradition.
• V. B. MOREEN, “The Heroic Mold in ‘Imrānī’s Fatḥ-Nāmah [‘Book of Conquest’], 15th century”, p. 71-90.
The Fatḥ-nāmah [‘The Book of Conquest’] of the Judeo-Persian poet ‘Imrānī (1454-ca. 1536) versifies the biblical books of Joshua, Judges, I Samuel and part of II Samuel. It is a conscious imitation and continuation of the work of Shāhīn (14th c.), who versified substantial parts of the Pentateuch. The martial content of the Fatḥ-nāmah makes ‘Imrānī’s reliance on the language and imagery of the Shāh-nāmah compelling especially as the poet also adds scenes that are not in the Bible but are in consonance with the ethos of the Iranian epic. Nevertheless, he remains faithful to the spiritual outlook of the biblical narrative.
Keywords : ‘Imrānī ; Fatḥ-nāmah ; Book of Joshua ; biblical epics ; Iranian epics ; Firdowsī ; Shāh-nāmah.
• F. SPEZIALE, “A propos du renouveau ni‘matullāhī : le centre de Hyderabad au cours de la première modernité”, p. 91-118.
This article looks at the history of the Ni‘matullāhiyya Sufi order in the Deccan region of India and at the Ni‘matullāhī centre which is established in Hyderabad by ‘Imād al-Dīn Maḥmūd al-Ḥusaynī (d. 1100/1689), a Shi’a of Iraqi origin who was initiated at Bidar. The development of this branch and of its new line of masters represents the main element of renewal of the order in the Deccan during the early modern period. At Hyderabad the Ni‘matullāhīs did not receive the support of the Shiite dynasty of the Quṭb Šāhs, in spite of the relation of its founder with the Ni‘matullāhīs of Iran. They enjoyed later the devotion of several nobleman of the city during the period of the Niẓāms, such as Ma‘ṣūm ‘Alī Šāh Dakanī (d. ca. 1211/1797), who was sent to restore the Ni‘matullāhī order in Iran. His master Šāh ‘Alī Riżā (d. 1215/1801) is considered the architect of the plan aiming to restore the Ni‘matullāhiyya in Iran, however the biographies of the Deccan Sufis give us a portrait of this figure that is quite different from the one given by the Iranian sources.
Keywords : Sufism ; Shiism ; Ni‘matullāhiyya ; Deccan ; Hyderabad ; Muslim India.
• N. SCHINDEL, “Farewell to the Coins of Ohrmazd III”, p. 121-131.
• Jean Perrot (1920-2012), p. 135-138.
Comptes rendus, p. 141-157
• BEREZINE, Ilya Nikolaevitch, Voyage en Perse du Nord, présentation, comm. & notes Jean Calmard, trad. Jacqueline Calmard-Compas, Paris, Geuthner, 2011 [ISBN 9782705338428], par Francis Richard.
• BREND, Barbara ; Charles MELVILLE ; et al., Epic of the Persian Kings, the Art of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, Cambridge-London, The Fitzwilliam Museum-I. B. Tauris, 2010 [ISBN 978-1-84885-332-4], par Francis Richard.
• BRIANT, Pierre ; Wouter F. M. HENKELMAN ; Matthew W. STOLPER, (éds.), L’archive des Fortifications de Persépolis, État des questions et perspectives de recherches. Actes du colloque organisé …, 3-4 novembre 2006, [Persika 12], Paris, de Boccard, 2008 [ISBN 978-7018-0249-7], par Rémy Boucharlat.
• FLOOR, Willem, Games Persians play. A history of games and pastimes in Iran from hide-and-seek to hunting, Washington DC, Mage Publishers, 2011 [ISBN-13 978-193382344-7 ; ISBN-10 193382344-5], par Jean-Pierre Digard.
• HACKL, U. ; B. JACOBS ; D. WEBER, (éds.), Quellen zur Geschichte des Partherreiches. Textsammlung mit Übersetzungen und Kommentaren, Novum Testamentum et Orbis Antiquus – Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments, Band 83, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen et Oakville, USA, 2010, 3 volumes [ISBN 978-3-525-53386-4], par Rika Gyselen.
• LEWISOHN, Leonard, (éd.), Hafiz and the Religion of Love in Classical Persian Poetry, London-New York, I. B. Tauris, 2010 [ISBN 978-1-84885-339-3], par Ève Feuillebois.
Vol. 42/2 (2013)
• S. AZARNOUCHE, “La terminologie normative de l’enseignement zoroastrien. Analyse lexicographique et sémantique de quatre termes pehlevis relatifs à l’apprentissage des textes sacrés”, p. 163-194.
Since orality holds a prominent role in the religious culture of Zoroastrianism, we are not surprised to find direct allusions to this means of transmission within the textual corpus itself (liturgical and theological texts). Unfortunately not much is known about the teaching methods that teachers employed to train their disciples in priesthood. The sole exception lies in a few recurring expressions—around ten—that the Zoroastrian literature in Middle Persian/Pahlavi has handed down to us. Among this normative terminology that primarily relates to the mnemonic learning of sacred texts (hymns and prayers of the Avesta), four technical terms will be discussed here : ōšmurišn, dranjišn, warm kardan and xwastan. As this semantic analysis will show, these terms describe various stages of recalling the chapters of a prayer, recitation and memorization practices, and finally the achievement of a uniform recitation.
Keywords : Zoroastrianism ; religious education ; technical terms ; mnemonic learning ; orality.
• H. BORJIAN, “Perso-Tabaric dialects in the language transition zone bordering Mazanderan”, p. 195-225.
The Tabari (or Mazanderani) language, spoken in the province of Mazanderan south of the Caspian Sea, is bound by Persian in the south and east. The transition zones between the two languages lay in the valleys and foothills of the Alborz range that separates Mazanderan from Tehran, Semnān, and Gorgān provinces. Within this zone we find a range of hybrid dialects that can be divided into two groups : Tabari dialects influenced by Persian and vise versa. This study includes the latter group, i.e. Persian varieties carrying various amounts of Tabari mix. The linguistic data is derived from nearly fifty localities surrounding Mazanderan, mostly from the south-central Alborz adjoining Tehran on the north, for which more material is on hand. The main objective is to show how the Persian dialects converge to Tabari in the morphosyntax of the noun and verb phrases. An attempt is also made to correlate the morphosyntax with the areal distribution of selected lexical items.
Keywords : Iranian languages ; Caspian dialects ; Mazanderan ; Jajrud ; Shemiran ; Semnan ; Shahrud ; Gorgan ; Karaj ; typology ; areal distribution ; language convergence.
• E. GRASSI, “Kokand men and women of letters who wrote both in Chaghatāy Turkish and Persian (first half of the 19th century)”, p. 227-248.
In the Kokand literary milieu, the parallel use of Chaghatāy Turkish and Persian was widespread in the first half of the 19th century. In the field of poetry, this is demonstrated not only by the high number of Kokand bilingual collections of poems (bayāż) that have reached us, but also by the poetical activity of various authors who left a bilingual dīvān. The aim of this research is to portray literary life during the heyday of the Kokand Khanate by introducing the creative writings, in both prose and poetry, of some bilingual men of letters (the members of the dynastic family, the satirists and the exiled poets), while also considering the literary activity of the female authors.
Keywords : literary bilingualism ; Kokand Khanate ; court poets ; satirists.
• W. FLOOR, “Johannes Lodewijk Schlimmer, and the creation of modern Persian medical terminology”, p. 249-274.
Little is known about the life of Dr. Johannes Schlimmer, practicing physician, teacher at the Dār al-Fonun in Tehran, author of many medical works in Persian and an important contributor to the creation of modern standardized medical terminology in Persian hence little has been written about him. Recently, new material has become available, with which, in combination with the old, I hope to bring him back from oblivion.
Keywords : Qājār ; Dār al-Fonun ; Schlimmer ; medical history ; Netherlands.
• R. GYSELEN, “Toponymes sassanides composés avec le terme moyen-perse win(n)ārd”, p. 277-281.
• R. SCHMITT, “Zu den Inscriptions grecques d’Iran et d’Asie centrale”, p. 283-292.
• Symposia Iranica 2013. 1er Colloque des jeunes chercheurs en études iraniennes / First Biennal Iranian Studies Graduate Conference, par V. ALLEGRANZI, p. 295-297.
Comptes rendus, p. 301-315.
• KHOSRONEJAD, Pedram, éd., The art and material culture of Iranian Shi’ism. Iconography and religious devotion in Shi’i Islam, London – New York : I.B. Tauris – Iran Heritage Foundation, 2012 [ISBN 978-1-84885-168-9], par Yann Richard.
• ROSE, Jenny, Zoroastrianism. An Introduction, London – New York : I.B. Tauris, 2011 [ISBN 978-1-84885-088-0], par Mihaela Timuş.
• SIMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas, Iranian Manuscripts in Syriac Script in the Berlin Turfan Collection [VOHD XVIII, 4], Stuttgart : Franz Steiner Verlag, 2012 [ISBN 978-3-515-10141-7], par Christelle Jullien.