Studia Iranica, vol. 43 (2014)
Vol. 43/1 (2014)
• G. ROUGEMONT, avec une note de P. BERNARD, “Grecs et non Grecs dans lеs inscriptions grecques d’Iran et d’Asie centrale”, p. 7-39.
Between the end of the 4th and the 2nd century B.C., Hellenistic kings founded, both in Iran and Central Asia, Greek city-states (poleis) which were true settlements. This contribution reviews indications of cultural interactions or osmosis between Greeks and non Greeks as it can be seen in Greek inscriptions from these regions. These indications are clear, but proportionally very rare. On the whole, the Hellenism displayed in these documents by Greek communities of Iran is an authentic one, « pure » and living. This does not preclude the fact that these communities, on the other hand, were influenced by their Iranian environment in a variety of fields. Contemporary parallels might shed light on this apparent contradiction.
Keywords : Hellenistic period ; epigraphy ; Hellenism ; cultural interactions ; Iran ; Central Asia.
• A. AHMADI, “Old Persian duvītāparanam and Gāthic daibitānā”, p. 41-82.
Against the previous analyses of the form and sense of the terms, this article shows that OP duvītāparanam and Gāthic daibitā(nā) are not adverbs of time but mean ‘in two’ or ‘two at a time’. I consider not only the Old Persian and Gāthic expressions but also cognate Vedic and Middle Iranian ones. OP duvītāparanam is found in Darius’ Bīsotūn Inscription. A close analysis of the passage and other evidence shows that there were in fact two Achaemenid sovereign houses prior to the Persian Empire—or, at least, that this is still the most plausible historical hypothesis. It puts to rest recent speculations on the matter and cautions against attempts to make up for lack of historical evidence by undue (e.g. anachronistic) speculation. The coupling adverb daibitānā ‘together’ pairs, seemingly in an idiomatic fashion, the daēvas and the ‘men’ in a ritual context. This constellation may be viewed as a basis for the hypothesis of an Iranian masculine esoteric cult.
Keywords : kingship ; Darius ; Cyrus ; Achaemenid history ; Gāthās ; daēvas.
• G. LAZARD, “La dialectologie du persan préclassique à la lumière des nouvelles données judéo-persanes”, p. 83-97.
Old Judaeo-Persian texts are an important source for the knowledge of the varieties of the common language of Iran (Persian) around the 10th/11th centuries. This article is a sketch of dialectology founded on the data provided by published texts compared with those of the Qor’ān-e Qods, a translation of the Coran in a local form of Persian, and with the testimony of early literary texts. Four dialects may be distinguished, two taking place within the Southern group, called Pārsi, namely Khuzistāni and Sistāni, two other belonging to the Northern group, called Dari, namely the North-Eastern dialect, which gave birth to literary New Persian, and the North-Western one. A phonological detail suggests that literary Middle Persian (a long time earlier) was born in Khuzistan. An excursus at the end of the article shows that there is a semantic difference between mp. čîz and mp. tis, which are usually both translated « thing ».
Keywords : Dari ; dialect ; Judaeo-Persian ; literary language ; Middle Persian ; Pārsi ; New Persian.
• C. JULLIEN, “Une question de parenté autour des rois mages”, p. 99-109.
An analysis of a passage from the Book of the Cave of Treasures leads us to identify the first remarkable testimony of a filiation of the Magians in the Gospel. This passage could be at the origin of the nominal lists tradition that developed in Syriac Christianity.
Keywords: Magians in the Gospel ; Book of the Cave of Treasures ; filiations ; Syriac Christianity.
• S. THROPE, “The massacre of the angels : Zoroastrian anti-Judaism and Islamic theology”, p. 111-128.
Chapters thirteen and fourteen of Mardānfarrox ī Ohrmazddādān’s ninth century theological and polemical treatise Škand Gumānīg Wizār contain the most extensive polemic material against Judaism known in Zoroastrian literature. This polemic is comprised solely of citations from Jewish texts and the author’s rationalist critique of those citations ; these Jewish citations are paralleled, more or less exactly, by passages from the Bible and rabbinic literature.
The present article examines Mardānfarrox’s argument against one of these Jewish citations, found in Škand Gumānīg Wizār 14:36-38. The citation describes how the Jewish God creates ninety thousand angels every day to praise him but, with nightfall, destroys them all in a river of fire. In his comments, Mardānfarrox indicts the Jewish God for his injustice and destruction of the angels.
Mardānfarrox’s critique of this citation is best understood not as a response to the content of the citation itself, but rather as contingent on the Škand Gumānīg Wizār’s theory of divine justice that forms a part of its proof of ethical dualism. Moreover, Mardānfarrox, both in the criticism of Judaism and in his rational explication of Zoroastrian theology, is taking up themes and methods prominent in Islamic Mu‘tazilite rationalist theology. In explicating these connections, the article situates the Škand Gumānīg Wizār as a whole as part of the shared intellectual discourse of the ninth and tenth centuries.
Keywords : Zoroastrianism ; Islam ; rationalist theology ; Pahlavi literature ; Judaism.
• N. ABE, “Preserving a Qājār estate : analysis of Fatḥ-‘Alī Khān Donbolī’s ‘property retention tactics’ “, p. 129-150.
This article examines strategies of local Iranian notables for preserving wealth in the nineteenth century, focusing on Fatḥ-‘Alī Khān Donbolī of Tabrīz. An analysis of his two inventories and other archival materials reveals that he and his family utilized “property retention tactics,” which is the de facto retention and administration of family members’ immovable properties without legal contracts. These tactics permitted the family to circumvent the rules of Islamic inheritance law and to prevent the fragmentation of property. Female relatives played a crucial role in these tactics and in the preservation of the family’s wealth. This study also shows the importance of the comparison of Islamic legal documents (sharī‘a documents) and other types of archival materials for a better understanding of property ownership in Muslim majority societies.
Keywords : Tabrīz ; local notables ; Fatḥ-‘Alī Khān Donbolī ; property-retention tactics ; sharī‘a document ; Islamic inheritance law.
Comptes rendus, p. 153-160
• AZARNOUCHE, Samra ; Céline REDARD, éds., Yama/Yima. Variations indo-iraniennes sur la geste mythique, Paris : Collège de France, 2012 [ISBN 978-2-86803-081-8], par Andrea Piras.
• HERMANN, Denis ; Sabrina MERVIN, éds., Shi’i Trends and Dynamics in Modern Times (XVIIIth-XXth centuries)/Courants et dynamiques chiites à l’époque moderne (XVIIIe-XXe siècles), Beirut : Ergon-Verlag, 2010 [ISBN 978-2-909961-48-, et 978-3-89913-808-5], par Mathieu Terrier.
Vol. 43/2 (2014)
• J. KELLENS, « Sur l’origine des Amǝṣ̌as Spǝṇtas », p. 163-175.
The group of the seven Amǝṣ̌as Spǝṇtas of the Young Avesta is not yet constituted in Old Avesta, but its members are joined together once in each polyhâtic Gāthā as a special phase of the liturgical process by the intervention of certain mediatory entities.
Keywords : Avesta ; Old Iran ; Zoroastrianism.
• D. AGOSTINI, E. KIESELE & SH. SECUNDA, “Ohrmazd’s Better Judgement (meh-dādestānīh) : A Middle Persian legal and theological discourse”, p. 177-202.
This article presents a transcription, translation, commentary, and discussion of a ritual and theological passage taken from the long-neglected Middle Persian work, the Zand ī fragard ī Jud-dēw-dād. The selection is notable for the way it mixes theological and ritual forms of discourse while considering situations in which impure or Evil things, like corpses, wolves, and sins, naturally come into contact with pure and Good elements, like water, fire, and good deeds. Along with explaining this rich text and its various textual parallels, the article considers the potential research value of the Zand ī fragard ī Jud-dēw-dād for Iranists and scholars of late antique religious literature.
Keywords : Middle Persian literature ; Pahlavi ; Zand ; Videvdad ; Zoroastrianism ; dualism ; theology.
• B. BARJASTEH DELFOROOZ & S. H. LEVINSOHN, “The Third Person Singular Pronominal Clitic in Balochi of Sistan : A Progress Report”, p. 203-220.
This paper begins by discussing the distribution of the two allomorphs of the third person singular pronominal clitic in Balochi of Sistan. It finds the conditioning to be mostly, but not exclusively phonological. When =ī is attached to the final verb of an independent clause, the referent is the subject/agent but, when =ē occurs, it is the undergoer (with a few exceptions due to dialectal variation). It follows that, when the subject is stated but =ī is also present, =ī still refers to the subject and gives it thematic prominence. The second part of the paper argues that the presence of the pronominal clitic with the past form of the verb ‘say’ (gušt=ī) communicates “referent continuity” (Givón 1990) ; in particular, the ongoing involvement in the expected role of any active third person participant who is not identified by a noun or independent pronoun in the current clause.
Keywords : Balochi ; North-Western Iranian languages ; Sistan ; pronominal clitics ; discourse pragmatics.
• W. FLOOR, “A Neglected aspect of the social history of the Iranian oil industry. The case of Southern Khuzestān’s early medical infrastructure”, p. 221-247.
This article discusses the development of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company’s (APOC) medical service from its simple beginnings in 1907 to one with the most modern medical facilities in the Middle East by 1950. The nature and scope of the medical services offered as well as their geographical distribution are discussed. The medical service not only served the Company’s needs, but also was a public relations tool to advance its negotiating position with all its domestic and foreign partners. Nevertheless, the service rendered was not optimal, for it had a minimalist approach, despite the fact that APOC had the legal responsibility for public health and sanitation in its concession area.
Keywords : Khuzestān ; Qājār ; oil ; Pahlavi ; medicine ; Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
• A. LEBUGLE-MOJDEHI, « La nuptialité dans l’Iran actuel. Les ajustements entre tradition et modernité », p. 249-277.
This article, based on censuses, a nation-wide inquiry on socio-economic features of Iranian households (2002), two inquiries on family and fertility in Shiraz (1996) and surrounding rural areas (1998) and more qualitative interviews realized in 2003-4 in four rural regions, aims to present the main characteristics of marriage regime in Iran and its evolution. These main characteristics are generality and precocity of marriage. In spite of factors such as high unemployment rate among young age classes, global empoverishment of the population and higher level of education among women, Iranian people keep on marrying massively and relatively early. However, a number of characteristics have begun to change : the age of marriage tends to be higher and higher, and women take a growing part in the choice of their spouse. Some other features have seen little change, for instance the high rate of marriage with (close or distant) relatives.
Keywords : marriage regime ; marriage rate ; age of marriage ; choice of spouse ; consanguinity of marriage.
• E. SHAVAREBI, “Some remarks on a newly-discovered coin type of Shāpūr I”, 281-290.
In this paper a unique gold coin of Shāpūr I, first published by Michael Alram, is re-examined from some iconographic details as well as from an epigraphic point of view, comparing the legend of the coin’s obverse with the Sasanian royal inscriptions.
Keywords : Shāpūr I ; Philip the Arab ; royal inscriptions ; Shāpūr’s inscription on the Ka‘ba-i Zardusht (ŠKZ) ; Sasanian iconography.
• Moḥammad Ebrāhim Bāstāni-Pārizi [1925-2014], par Yann Richard, p. 293-295
• Richard N. Frye [1920-2014], par Frantz Grenet, p. 297-301.
Comptes rendus, p. 305-316
• ÁLVAREZ-MON, Javier ; Mark B. GARRISON, éds., Elam and Persia, Winona Lake : Eisenbraus, 2011 [ISBN 978-1-57506-166-5], par Rémy Boucharlat.
• PIEMONTESE, Angelo Michele, La Persia istoriata in Roma, Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 2014 [ISBN 978-88-210-0910-5], par Christelle Jullien.
• de SILVA Y FIGUEROA, Don Garcia, Comentarios de la Embaxada al Rey Xa Abbas de Persia (1614-1624), vols. 1-2 : Texte (éd. R. M. Loureiro, A. C. Costa Gomes et V. Resende) ; vol. 4 : LOUREIRO, R. M., et V. RESENDE, (éds.), Estudos sobre Don García de Silva y Figueroa e os « Comentarios » da embaixada à Pérsia (1614-1624), Lisbonne : Centro de História de Além-Mar, Estudos & Documentos, 2011 [ISBN 978-989-8492-08-01 ; 978-989-8492-09-08 ; 978-989-8492-03-06], par Michele Bernardini.