Studia Iranica, vol. 49 (2020)
Vol. 49/1 (2020)
• PANAINO, Antonio; MARTORELLO, Franco. “The ‘Amphibology’ of the Time in Astrology : The King and the Rebel in Sasanian Astrological Literature”, p. 7-31.
The present article investigates the methodological and ideological continuity adopted in the astrological patterns useful for a (political and military) prognosis concerning the destiny of a rebel between Sasanian Iran and early Islamic tradition. The comparison between the reports given to king Ardawān by his astrologers (in the Kārnāmag ī Ardaxšīr ī Pābagān, when the young prince Ardaxšīr escaped from Parthian control), and the methods adopted by Theophilus of Edessa in order to make his predictions for the rebellions of the years 758-759 against his lord, the Abbasid prince, the future al-Mahdī, shows that the direct assimilation of the runaway slave to a rebel (with all the other apotelesmatic associations fruit of an elaboration already present in the treaties of Dorotheus of Sidon and Hephaestio Thebanus) was not a later innovation by Theophanes himself. This solution, in fact, corresponds to the one adopted for a similar earlier Sasanian framework, from whose pattern it could even derive.
• KARGAR, Bahman; BINANDEH, Ali; KHANMOHAMADI, Behruz. “Excavations at Tepe Qalaychi, a Mannaean Site in Western Azerbaijan, Iran”, p. 33-55.
Tepe Qalaychi was identified in the south of Lake Urmia in 1985, and excavated in 1999-2004 following the plundering of the site. It is dated to Iron Age III in the Mannaean culture. Significant finds include part of a stele with Aramaic inscription, known as the stele of Bukan. This paper presents a selection of the glazed bricks actually found in the 1999-2004 excavations. Qalaychi is identified with Izirtu, the ancient capital of Manna.
• NASROLLAHZADEH, Cyrus; QEZELBASH, Ebrahim. “Une inscription funéraire inédite en moyen-perse tardif (Dašt-e Rum, Yāsuj, Iran)”, p. 57-70.
A new Middle Persian funerary inscription was discovered in 2012 in Dašt-e Rum near Yāsuj (in the Iranian province of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad). Although many inscribed tombs have been found both inside and outside Iran, this is the first one to be found in this province of North-Western Fārs. The inscription is not dated, but like the other Middle Persian funerary inscriptions that have been discovered, it could well belong to the early centuries of the Hijri Era.
• KOOCHAKZADEH, Leila. “La charte de l’Anjoman-e Ma’āref de 1901 : Une source retrouvée de l’histoire de la reforme éducative en Iran”, p. 71-110.
The turn of the 19th and 20th centuries was a period of major upheaval in Iran, including an educational reform movement led by the Anjoman-e Ma‘āref, a semi-institutional organization for the development of education. Its action plan for school reform had been defined in a charter published in 1901, of which only a partial translation into French has been known until now. The rediscovery of the Persian original of this document is therefore a great opportunity for researchers working on the history of education and on the history of cultural relations between the West and Qājār Iran. We propose here an edition of this source, as well as a translation of the introduction not included in the French version, and a comparison of the original Persian version with the latter. Follows the edition of Ernest Bourgarel’s letter to Théophile Delcassé, to which this charter was annexed and which highlights its historical importance.
• KAZEROUNI, Alexandre. “Ḥājj Ḥoseyn Āqā Malek (1871-1972), sa bibliothèque et son musée à Téhéran : Bourgeoisie marchande pieuse et espaces publics culturels en Iran”, p. 111-144.
This article questions the role of the pious merchants, the tojjār, constitutive of a private sphere in expansion between the 1870s and the 1900s, in the production of non-religious cultural public spaces in Iran during the 20th century, with the Malek melli Library and Museum as a study case. This institution has been founded by Ḥājj Ḥoseyn Āqā Malek (1871-1972) as a pious foundation or vaqf since 1937. Its study reveals a balance of power between the State and the pious merchants who can be hence assimilated to a bourgeoisie for the definition of what could be qualified as public or as national. It also shows an expansion of the public sphere of this pious merchant bourgeoisie and a spread of its definition of nationalism beyond the time of its dissipation as a social group in the 1960s.
COMPTES RENDUS p. 147-158.
Vol. 49/2 (2020)
• RAFFAELLI, Enrico G. “Day-Name Titles, Content Titles, Mixed Titles : The Different Appellations of the Avestan Yašts 5, 8, 9, 15, 18 and 19”, p. 163-205.
This article studies the diverse titles assigned in Zoroastrian tradition to the Avestan Yašts (hymns) 5, 8, 9, 15, 18, and 19, titles that include the names of the protagonists of these texts (content titles), the names of calendric entities who are not their protagonists (day-name titles), or both (mixed titles). It studies the diverse relationship between the titles and contents of these texts. Through an analysis of the sources, it reconstructs the earliest history of these titles, proposing that the day-name titles existed in Sasanian times, whereas the content titles and the mixed titles were introduced later.
• MARTÍNEZ-PORRO, Jaime. “The Written Transmission of the Vištāsp Yašt Ceremony”, p. 207-221.
The Avestan codex F13, held at the Meherji-Rana Library in Navsari, is a very recent manuscript (nineteenth century). The value of the codex lies in the fact that the texts it contains, including a Vištāsp Yašt, were copied from much older manuscripts which we cannot access. In fact, the Vištāsp Yašt and its colophon allow us to trace much better the history of the transmission of this ceremony, which until now was rather obscure and considered to be quite recent, especially in India. Thanks to this codex we can trace its transmission back to the thirteenth century and to the figure of Rōstam Mihrābān. In this contribution I present the results of the analysis of the manuscript and a proposal for the transmission of the manuscripts of Vištāsp Yašt in India and Iran.
• ORSATTI, Paola. “The New Persian Perfect of the kard-astam Type : Materials for a Historical-Linguistic Interpretation”, p. 223-241.
The article deals with the origins of the New Persian kard-astam present perfect (the so-called ‘perfectum secundum’, PRF II). After a discussion of the main theories concerning the form of the participle and the auxiliary (būdan ‘to be’ or ēstādan ‘to stand’) in this type of perfect, it is suggested that PRF II arose from the gradual extension of ast, the 3sg present of the ‘be’ auxiliary, first to the 3sg and then to all persons of the Middle Persian preterite, as a mark of present perfect tense. The Early Judaeo-Persian perfect of the type [būdom hest] may offer a good comparison material in order to explain the form of the New Persian PRF II form: it seems to represent the same type of construction attested in literary Early New Persian, though with a displacement of the 3sg of ‘to be’ after the verbal endings; a type of construction also characteristic of the old optative: kardam-ē ‘I used to do, I wish I had done’, with -ē from Middle Persian hē, 3sg present optative of h- ‘to be’. This same construction for perfect forms is still attested in modern western and south-western Persian dialects. A single Manichaean Middle Persian 3sg preterite with ast (kird ast) may shed some light on the origins of PRF II in Early New Persian: in the Manichaean Middle Persian hymn S9 kird ast is endowed with a clear emphatic value, and responds to the need to express a tense-aspect meaning of perfect, distinct from the meaning of simple past (preterite).
• FLOOR, Willem. “The Gates of Isfahan in the Safavid and Qajar Periods”, p. 243-274.
Although no traces are left of the city gates of Isfahan their names are often mentioned in Persian and European language sources. However, not all of these gates were city gates, while some gates had more than one name, which has led to confusion. Therefore, this article identifies the names and the location of the city gates of Isfahan in the Safavid and Qajar period.
• BROMBERGER, Christian. “Le statut des femmes au Gilān : Un sujet controversé”, p. 275-294.
Among the specific features of regional society, one often focuses on the status of women, which contrasts with that experienced elsewhere in Iran. But two contradictory visions are opposed; on the one hand, many factors speak in favour of a higher status for women than that which prevails in other regions of Iran (greater female education, an original division of spaces and tasks…); on the other hand, there is evidence of overexploitation of agricultural female labour (transplanting rice, weeding rice fields…). Are these two contradictory approaches incompatible? A general examination of the position of women in the peasant world confirms the first hypothesis; an analysis of female labour in the poor peasantry supports the second. The most arduous tasks are carried out by the most disadvantaged peasant women. The contradiction is therefore only apparent; it reflects a social difference. This analysis is based on a long field research carried out in the last decades of the 20th c. and the first of the 21st c. (reference period of this paper) within the peasantry of Gilān.
COMPTES RENDUS p. 297-315.